Petrochemical Industry and Regulated Testing
The petrochemical industry performs many tests for refined products. Refineries, Inspection and Chemical labs across the world use ASTM, ISO, IP, and other accepted chemical industry standards and protocols. Materials tested include the entire complex range of hydrocarbon based chemicals derived from petroleum. This also applies to primary petrochemicals including olefins, aromatics, and synthesis gas. Petrochemical testing can extend to trace and ultra-trace level analysis. Chemical testing expertise includes purity & component, trace composition, trace contamination, quality control, troubleshooting, and other chemical analysis expertise. ASTM chemical testing methods are utilized by laboratories for chemical analysis of petrochemicals, compounds, materials, petroleum, fuels, consumer products, and other chemical substances.
ASTM chemical test methods are industry accepted standards for quality control and reliability. Testing measures require trace analysis to ppm, ppb, and ppt levels. Petrochemicals and chemicals are tested for quality control, purity, contamination, research and development, troubleshooting, environmental evaluation, regulatory compliance, and more. No matter what your combustion applications require EST analytical has a solution for you. Innovative solutions for liquids, solids, and LPG’s are provided in either our Horizontal System the Nexis or Vertical System the 7000. EST provides full service, parts and technical support to keep your labs running seamlessly.
Total Nitrogen Analysis
Total Nitrogen (TN) stands for the sum parameter of all organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Trace levels (0.02 – 10.000 mg/kg or ppm by weight) of Total Nitrogen are measured with an elemental combustion analyzer according to Chemiluminescence detection technique. Total Nitrogen in fuels (NO2) pollutes the environment. It is corrosive to steel and poisons catalysts. Nitrogen compounds are more thermally stable compared to sulfur compounds and is often concentrated in heavier petroleum fractions and residues. Examples of Organic Nitrogen compounds that contribute to the Total Nitrogen number in petroleum products are Pyridines, Quinolines and Carbazoles. Common ASTM methods for nitrogen testing include: ASTM D4629, ASTM D5762, ASTM D7184, and D6069. The Nexis TN total nitrogen analyzer provides a reliable and robust solution for labs.
ASTM Method D4629 is commonly used for the determination of Nitrogen found in liquid hydrocarbons. The method is used for matrices with total Nitrogen content under 100mg/kg. Common matrices for this method include naphthas, distillates and oils. This application will examine total Nitrogen content using small sample volumes.
Vacuum Gas Oils (VGOs) are the heavy oils left after petroleum distillation. VGOs have a viscous matrix and high boiling points. The EST Analytical TN 7000 has an injection port designed to maintain the injection port temperature at 500°C, while the autosampler tray can be fitted with a heater. These features aid in making the TN 7000 ideal for the examination of total Nitrogen in VGO samples.
Crude oil is composed mainly of hydrocarbons mixed with a variation of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. The differences in the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen content can be attributed to where the crude oil originates. After drilling, crude oil is usually refined in order to create fuel, lubricants, etc. Due to the use of processing catalysts in the refining method, trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen can be very detrimental. Thus, determining the nitrogen and sulfur content is very important. This application will examine total sulfur and nitrogen in light hydrocarbon samples using the NexiS combustion elemental analyzer complete with a new and novel multilayer combustion tube.
ASTM D5762 covers the determination of Total Nitrogen in liquid petroleum products and lubricants in concentrations ranging from about 40 to 10,000 mg/kg.
Nitrogen compounds can have detrimental effects on many environmental and industrial processes and are undesirable in finished products. Nitrogen containing hydrocarbons seem to be the hardest to hydrotreat, meaning that the nitrogen content in the product of the hydrotreater is a measure of the effectiveness of the hydrotreating process.
This supports the need and importance to monitor trace level nitrogen concentration of various type of automotive fuels and related products.
This Application Note shows the Total Nitrogen analysis performance of a set of liquid hydrocarbon samples, by the EST NEXIS model Total Nitrogen analyzer.
ASTM D4629 covers the determination of total Nitrogen in concentrations ranging from about 0,3 to 100 mg/kg in liquid petroleum products having a boiling point range of 50˚C to 400˚C and viscosities between 0,2 and 10 mm²/s at ambient temperature.
The ASTM D4629 standard is the preferred method in many countries to detect and quantify total bounded nitrogen containing compounds in the various type of automotive fuels such as blended gasolines, diesel and synthetic oils.
Nitrogen compounds can have detrimental effects on many environmental and industrial processes and are undesirable in finished products. This supports the need and importance to monitor trace level nitrogen concentration of various type of automotive fuels and related products.
This Application Note shows the total bounded Nitrogen analysis performance of a set of liquid hydrocarbon samples, by the EST NEXIS Total Nitrogen analyzer.
Total Sulfur Analysis
Total Sulfur (TS) stands for the sum parameter of all organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Trace levels (0.02 – 10.000 mg/kg or ppm by weight) of Total Sulfur are measured with an elemental combustion analyzer according to UV-Fluorescence detection technique or Microcoulometric detection technique. Common ASTM methods for sulfur testing include: ASTM D5453-19a, ASTM D6667, and ASTM D7183. The Nexis TS total sulfur analyzer provides a reliable and robust solution for labs.
Environmental regulations like the TIER III and EURO VI wield a maximum of 10 mg/kg of Total Sulfur or ppm by weight in diesel oils. The maximum amount of 10 ppm is also included in the Chinese norms GB 19147-2013 for Diesel fuels and GB 17930-2013 for Gasoline, deriving from the CHINA 5 environmental program.
ASTM Method D5453–19a includes an Appendix (A1) which describes the requirement to compensate for the presence of any Nitrogen compound interference when analyzing Trace Level Total Sulfur content in naphtha’s, distillates, engine oils, ethanol, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) and engine fuels.
Some analyzers today use a back-order calculation to manage nitrogen interference. However, it is limited in that it’s mathematical only and does not change the composition of the NO matrix. It also requires the added cost of a nitrogen analyzer. Others change the NO prior to UV detection. This can be very effective but may reduce the lifespan of the UV detector reaction chamber. The Nexis TRINITY solution changes the NO prior to UV detection. Its adjustable capability does not impact the lifespan of the UV detection chamber; therefore, making it the ideal solution for trace level sulfur detection.
Crude oil is composed mainly of hydrocarbons mixed with a variation of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. The differences in the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen content can be attributed to where the crude oil originates. After drilling, crude oil is usually refined in order to create fuel, lubricants, etc. Due to the use of processing catalysts in the refining method, trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen can be very detrimental. Thus, determining the nitrogen and sulfur content is very important. This application will examine total sulfur and nitrogen in light hydrocarbon samples using the NEXIS combustion elemental analyzer complete with a new and novel multilayer combustion tube.
ASTM Method D7183 describes the determination of sulfur in aromatic hydrocarbons and other related chemicals. The concentration range for this method is 0.5 to 10 mg/kg and samples can be either directly injected or placed in a boat for combustion and analysis.
Traditionally, combustion and Ultra Violet Fluorescence (UV-F) have been used for accurate analysis of sulfur in motor fuels as per ASTM Method D5453. However, even an optimized detector may identify nitrogen as nitrogen oxide, which emits at the same wavelength as sulfur dioxide, resulting in inaccurate analysis. This Application Note describes the total sulfur analysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) samples on the EST Analytical TS 7000 instrument as per ASTM Method D5453.
ASTM Method D5453 is commonly used to determine total sulfur in liquid hydrocarbons. The boiling range of these hydrocarbons can vary from 25 to 400oC. This method calls for the sample to be directly injected or placed in a sample boat and then inserted into a high temperature tube for combustion where the sample is oxidized into sulfur dioxide (SO2). The sample is exposed to ultraviolet light and detected by a photomultiplier. This application will examine the total sulfur content of diesel fuel samples using the NEXIS Total Nitrogen/Total Sulfur combustion analyzer.
ASTM Method D5453-19a describes the determination of total sulfur in liquid hydrocarbons that boil in the range of approximately 25°C to 400°C. As some catalysts in the refining process can be poisoned by trace amounts of sulfur, it is important to be able to reliably and quickly determine sulfur content in order to increase productivity. This application note will examine the total sulfur detection employing minimum sample volumes.
ASTM Method D5453-19a describes the combustion and Ultra Violet Fluorescence (UV-F) detection of Sulfur in light hydrocarbons, engine fuels and oils. However, even an optimized detector may identify Nitrogen oxide as Sulfur dioxide, as they both emit at the same wavelength. This problem can result in false positives or biased total sulfur data.
EST Analytical has developed an integrated tunable Nitrogen Oxide Interference Elimination Module, called the TRINITY Module. This new module ensures there is no interference when analyzing high nitrogen containing samples thus delivering accurate total Sulfur data.
ASTM Method D5453-19a describes the determination of total Sulfur in light hydrocarbons, fuels and oils. This application examines the background, principle of operation and performance data of reduced sample volumes for Total Sulfur analysis in an extensive range of liquid hydrocarbon samples carried out by the EST Analytical Total Sulfur analyzer, model TS 7000, according to ASTM Method D5453-19a.
ASTM D5453 covers the determination of Total Sulfur in concentrations ranging from about 1 to 8000 mg/kg in a wide range of liquid hydrocarbons and automotive fuels having a boiling point range of 25˚C to 400˚C and viscosities between 0.2 and 20 Cst (mm²/s) at ambient temperature.
Sulfur compounds can have detrimental effects on many environmental and industrial processes and are undesirable in finished products. This supports the need and importance to monitor trace level sulfur concentration of various type of automotive fuels and related products. This Application Note shows the analysis performance of a set of automotive fuel samples. The system design and methodology of the EST NEXIS Total Sulfur analyzer is thoroughly tested for response linearity and repeatability, to validate its performance according to ASTM D5453.
The total sulfur analysis of LPG by UV-Fluorescence detection is governed by ASTM D6667 and is applicable to samples containing sulfur in the range of 1.0 to 100 mg/kg. This application note describes a direct sampling and injection technique, which is fully compliant with ASTM D6667, for measuring low level sulfur in LPG using the EST NEXIS model Total Sulfur Analyzer in conjunction with the EST NEXIS GM model, Gas & LPG Sample introduction module.
Total Chlorine Analysis
Total Chloride, Total Chlorine or Total Halogens, stand for the sum parameter of organic as well as inorganic Fluorine (F), Chlorine, (Cl), Bromine (Br) and Iodine (I). Trace levels of Total Chloride are measured with an elemental combustion analyzer according to Microcoulometric detection technique / Microcoulometry. Organic chlorines do not occur naturally in crude oil. When present, they result from contamination in some manner, such as disposal of chlorinated solvent used in many dewaxing pipeline or other equipment operations. Organic Chlorine species are potentially damaging to refinery processes. Hydrochloric acid can be produced in hydrotreating or reforming reactors and the acid accumulates in condensing regions of the refinery. Unexpected concentrations of organic chlorides cannot be effectively neutralized and damage can result. Organic chlorides are not known to be naturally present in crude oils and usually result from cleaning operations at producing sites, pipelines, or tanks. It is important for the oil industry to have common methods available for the determination of organic chlorides in crude oil, particularly when transfer of custody is involved. Common ASTM methods for chloride testing include: ASTM D5194, ASTM D4929, D5808, D6721, and D7457. The Nexis TX total chloride analyzer provides a reliable and robust solution for labs.
The EST Analytical TX 6000, Total Chlorine Analyzer, is able to measure trace level chlorine content in a wide range of light and heavy liquid hydrocarbon samples using sample introduction techniques appropriate to the matrix. This ability to introduce samples in both light and heavy liquid hydrocarbons aids in the analysis of trace level Total Chlorine content in hydraulic oils.
The presence of chlorine in crude oil can hydrolyze during the refinery process to form hydrochloric acid which causes corrosion. Corrosion at petroleum refineries is a critical problem which exists at many places around the globe and has a huge cost impact in terms of maintenance.